Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamins Deficiency

Premenstrual Syndrome (or PMS) is a state caused by a number of hormonal imbalances that trigger multiple disruptive symptoms in a high number of women prior to menstruation. Statistic has shown that among 40 million of those who suffer with PMS symptoms, over 5 million need medical treatment.

Most of the time symptoms of PMS symptoms disappear when menstruation starts. Women stay symptom free until 5 to 14 days before the next menstrual period. These regularly happening symptoms after ovulation until menstruation are called Premenstrual syndrome (or PMS). Symptoms diverge from mild to severe enough that they interfere with work and social activities.

PMS may be manifested by a wide range of signs and symptoms:

  • Depression, irritability, tension, fatigue, anxiety
  • Headaches, dizziness and even fainting
  • Acne, hives, boils
  • Joint and back pain
  • Allergy and asthma like signs, hoarseness, sinusitis, sore throat.
  • Bladder infections
  • Food cravings, bloating
  • Tenderness and swelling of the breasts

The most severe form of PMS is called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This disorder takes place in 2 to 9 percent of menstruating women. Symptoms of PMDD and PMS are alike but are much more severe in PMDD.

The etiology of PMS and PMDD is fully unstated. There are hormonal imbalances as well as biochemical neurotransmitters imbalances in the brain which contribute to these.

Various vitamins and minerals have been found helpful in lessening the severity of the symptoms of PMS.

In most cases Calcium with Vitamin D reduce an intensity of PMS symptoms by 48%.

Magnesium deficiency also can significantly worsen PMS symptoms. A double-blind randomized study found oral Magnesium supplementation effective in reducing symptoms of PMS.

Researches from Baylor College in Texas have found that in patients suffering from PMS the level of Zinc in the luteal phase was lower than normal, while the copper level was elevated.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in the doses of 100 mg was may be helpful in alleviating symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual depression.

The study found that Chasteberry, an extract of chaste tree fruit, is helpful for PMS symptoms, especially breast tenderness. Chasteberry support healthy serotonin level in the brain, therefore helping in mental and physical relaxation.

Ginkgo biloba extract in the amount of 160 Mg was also benefits for alleviate symptoms of fluid retention, breast tenderness and anxiety associated with PMS.

Vitamin E in the amount of 400 IU a day given for 3 months can to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of PMS.

Theanine, an amino acid relieves the symptoms of PMS by its normalizing effect on brain neurotransmitters and brain electrical activity.

Theanine is present in Green Tea, and is also available as a nutritional supplement.

Premenstrual Syndrome relief

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Vitamin D3 deficiency

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What is Vitamin D3?

Vitamin D3 you make in your body from sunshine. It also called cholecalciferol. Vitamin D3 is made by skin when the skin is exposed to direct sunlight containing the B form of ultraviolet radiation (UVB).
Cholecalciferol is the form used in many supplements and is sometimes used in food fortification.
Vitamin D3, whether taken as a supplement or made in the skin from sunlight, is biologically inactive. Vitamin D3, is circulated to the liver through the bloodstream. In the liver cholecalciferol is hydroxylated (hydrogen and oxygen are added) to form calcidiol, the storage form of vitamin D.

Why we need Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 serves a number of functions in the human body. Vitamin D3 helps the body absorb calcium, and this helps to maintain strong and healthy bones.
Vitamin D3 helps bones mend and heal after injury. Vitamin D3 can help reduce inflammation in the body.
Recent researches have shown vitamin D3 may also help prevent high blood pressure as well as some types of cancer.

Vitamin D3 deficiency symptoms
Certain diseases can develop in result of vitamin D3 deficiency. First of all, shortage of vitamin D3 in her blood causes rickets, a disease that causes bones to become deformed. Without enough vitamin D3 bones may become thin and brittle. An individual with a vitamin D3 deficiency is at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. A deficiency in vitamin D3 can also cause chronic muscle weakness.

Vitamin D3 food sources
Unlike other nutrients, vitamin D3 is not found in a large number of foods. Mushrooms contain a lot of vitamin D3. Fish that are high in vitamin D3 include salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Eggs are a good source of vitamin D3, as are beef and liver.
In US vitamin D3 has been added to a number of foods that people consume more regularly.

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How protect yourself from osteoporosis and heart disease besides taking estrogen

Some 20 million American women are affected by osteoporosis.
Certainly for osteoporosis there are natural things that a woman can do that are somewhat helpful. Exercise, eat a decent diet, get enough calcium—but at the next level, which is taking medication, a woman’s options include alendronate, calcitonin and raloxifene or tamoxifen.
Ask your doctor if you should have a bone density scan, which is an x-ray of your bones that can detect bone loss. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy or other drugs, diet changes or exercise to increase the mass and strength of your bones.

For cardiovascular disease, it’s the same thing: a low-fat diet, antioxidant vitamins, exercises, not smoking—all the things we know and read about. None of them is as good as estrogen for either osteoporosis or cardiovascular disease, but there certainly is some benefit. It’s better than doing nothing.

In the antioxidant area, folate is at least as strong as estrogen for fighting cardiovascular disease, as is vitamin E. For a smoker, quitting smoking will actually have as big an impact as taking estrogen.

So in fact there are a number of comparable strategies, and those with equal benefits and low risks should come to the top of the list of strategies. To me, that’s where some of these options clearly dominate the choice of estrogen for preventing heart disease.


New drug for osteoporosis treatment

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Original article

Global sales of osteoporosis treatments, including hundreds of vitamin brands, hit nearly $8.4 billion last year, according to data from IMS Health. About 10 million Americans have osteoporosis.
Dr. Lenore Buckley, a professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, said all these drugs carry some risks. The studies found denosumab caused eczema in some patients, and a dozen of the women got a serious skin infection, cellulitis, that sometimes required hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics.

A first-of-its-kind new osteoporosis drug lowers the risk of bone fractures better than some existing treatments, two studies suggest, and could soon add a more expensive but easier option to the booming market.

Genetically engineered denosumab could be approved for sale this fall. Only two shots of it are needed each year.
That’s important because many patients stop taking other drugs due to side effects or frequent dosing.

Dr. Jacob Warman, an osteoporosis treatment expert at Brooklyn Hospital Center, said denosumab might have potential as an add-on to osteoporosis treatment drugs and vitamins to boost results. He expects that would be covered by insurers, who pay for multiple medicines for other conditions.
The effectiveness of denosumab and existing drugs appears to plateau after two or three years.
Until recently, studies of osteoporosis drugs just measured changes in bone density, assumed to equate with lower fracture risk.

Newer studies also measure fracture rates, but there are no head-to-head studies on that.
Amgen spokeswoman Kerry Beth Daly said the company has not yet set a price for the new drug for osteoporosis treatment, but will try to keep it affordable.


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Main causes of osteoporosis development

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Osteoporosis is disease when bones become that brittle and break easily. There are no symptoms unless a bone is broken. Osteoporosis is a very serious health problem which affects some 25 million Americans and costs nearly $14 billion a year. Four out of five of them are older women.

Postmenopausal bone loss is mostly due to increases in bone loss, which are more important than decreases in bone formation.
Osteoporosis is a long-term chronic disease that normally takes decades to develop. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors in preventing osteoporosis.

Calcium and Osteoporosis

Low level of calcium is main cause of osteoporosis development.
Loss of calcium from the bones, as can occur on a day with lower calcium intake coupled with high sodium and protein intake, is hard to replace. Calcium can be removed quickly from bones, but it is a slower process to rebuild bones.
Weight-bearing exercise is important in early life, as it increases bone density. Exercise and movement in later life also stimulate bone formation. Some people have genetically denser bones than others, which lowers risk.
Although osteoporosis is caused mostly by a shortage of calcium but other vitamins and minerals deficiency induces or increase of risk this dangerous disease

Vitamin A

In older men and women, long-term intakes of preformed vitamin A can be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture and decreased bone mineral density.
Levels of only 5000 IU (1,500 mcg) are enough to increase risk. This is well below the upper limit set at 10,000 IU (3000 mcg) per day. Only high intakes of preformed vitamin A, not beta-carotene, are associated with any increased adverse effects on bone health.
Too little vitamin A can also be a problem because adequate vitamin A is needed to prevent osteoporosis.
The best way to assure safe levels of vitamin A is to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and, if supplements are needed, to use the beta-carotene form.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D deficiency can another cause of osteoporosis. Without enough vitamin D, the bones cannot properly mineralize.

Vitamin K
Vitamin K is needed to bind minerals to bones. Vitamin K is used as a coenzyme to enable bone mineralization. Several studies have found a correlation between higher vitamin K levels and lowered risk of hip fracture.

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Osteoporosis and Vitamin A

osteoporosisIn older men and women, long-term intakes of preformed vitamin A can be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture and decreased bone mineral density.
Levels of only 5000 IU (1,500 mcg) are enough to increase risk. This is well below the upper limit set at 10,000 IU (3000 mcg) per day. Only high intakes of preformed vitamin A, not beta-carotene, are associated with any increased adverse effects on bone health.

Older men and women may want to limit their supplemental vitamin A intake or take only the beta-carotene form of vitamin A. Many fortified foods such as cereal contain significant levels of preformed vitamin A. The vitamin A in fortified foods should be added to the vitamin A in any supplements to find the total intake.

On the other hand, low levels of vitamin A can adversely affect bone mineral density.
In older people, an intake of preformed vitamin A close to the recommended dose is safest.
The best way to assure safe levels of vitamin A is to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and, if supplements are needed, to use the beta-carotene form.


Vitamin K benefits

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It is very difficult to underestimate benefits of Vitamin K for our health.
Your need Vitamin K to help your bones grab onto calcium, put it in the right place, and hold onto it once it’s there.
If you don’t have enough Vitamin K, you won’t be able to form new bone very well. In the long run, a shortage of Vitamin K can lead to osteoporosis, or bones that are brittle and break easily.
Once osteoporosis starts, researchers think that extra Vitamin K benefits slow down the process. This is still being studied, though, so don’t start taking supplements just yet.
Your blood normally has a number of different clotting factors—substances that help it form clots to stop bleeding from cuts, bruises, and other injuries. You need Vitamin K to help your liver make prothrombin (factor II), the most important of the clotting factors. Some of the other factors, including factors VII, IX, and X, are also made in your liver and also depend on Vitamin K.

Without clotting factors, your blood clots very slowly or not at all, so even a small cut can bleed for a long time and even a minor bang can cause a big bruise.
Some researches demonstrated that Vitamin K kills cancer cells.
But so far, only in the test tube.
Vitamin K seems to slow down or kill tumor cells in the lab just as well as powerful drugs.
Some studies are looking at combining Vitamin K with standard anticancer drugs benefit them works better. We don’t know how well this works yet.


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